By Maurice Natanson
"Why is my soreness perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed?" -Jeremiah "Existentialism" this day refers to faddism, decadentism, morbidity, the "philosophy of the graveyard"; to phrases like worry, dread, anxiousness, suffering, agony, aloneness, dying; to novelists akin to Jean-Paul Sartre, Dostoievski, Camus, Kafka; to philosophers like Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Marcel, Jaspers, and Sartre-and since it refers to, and is anxious with, all of those rules and individuals, existentialism has misplaced any clearer that means it could possibly have initially possessed. since it has such a lot of definitions, it might now not be outlined. As Sartre writes: "Most those that use the observe existentialism will be em barrased in the event that they needed to clarify it, seeing that, now that the be aware is the entire rage, even the paintings of a musician or painter is being referred to as existentialist. A gossip columnist . . . indicators himself The Exis tentialist, in order that via this time the observe has been so stretched and has taken on so wide a which means, that it now not capability something in any respect. " 2 This kingdom of definitional confusion isn't an unintended or negligible topic. An try might be made during this advent to account for the confustion and to teach why any definition of existentialism in volves us in a tangle. First, even though, it's important to country in a tenta tive and extremely basic demeanour what issues of view are right here meant whilst reference is made to existentialism.
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To say that the pour-so; has to be what it is; to say that it is what it is not in notbeing what it is; to say that in it existence precedes and conditions essence or •.. , 516. 11 Ibid. 50 A CRITIQUE OF JEAN·PAUL SARTRE'S ONTOLOGY abstraction but as engaged, as in situation. soi is only in so far as it is engaged and in situation. We must, therefore, turn to the concept of situation in order to describe the more profound im· plications of Sartre's theory of human freedom. The situation of man is the totality of the limits with which the pour-soi is £aced in its relation to the world.
It spread out in all directions. it filled everything with its sprawling mass, and I could see layer upon layer of it, extending much farther than the limits of the park and the houses and Bouville. I was no longer in Bouville. nor anywhere, I was floating. I was not surprised; I was very well aware that it was the World, the naked World which had suddenly shown itself, and I was choking with rage against this huge absurd being. . " 41 EN, 134. tre et Ie N cant Sartte described mainly the Being of the pour-soi and its relation to the en-so;.
Of what is there desire? and What is it that desires? " 77 This EN, 446. , 447. , 449. 73 Ibid. , 451. , 455. 78 Ibid. , 459. " 78 Desire, however, also leads to a paradox-an "impossible ideal": "to possess the transcendance of the Other as pure transcendance and yet. -Sadism is the correlated reverse of masochism. Like masochism it is destined to failure. "The object of sadism is immediate appropriation.... " 80 "What the sadist seeks ... " 81 To accomplish this the sadist seeks the moment of decision when his victim gives in under the torture.
A Critique of Jean-Paul Sartre’s Ontology by Maurice Natanson