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By Dr. Lars Håkanson (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3540104801

ISBN-13: 9783540104803

ISBN-10: 3642815634

ISBN-13: 9783642815638

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Sample text

_----,_--__. w o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ro 00 ~k~ Base area Fig. 33. The relationship between the form roughness (Rf) and the base area for which the Rf-value is determined. 7 a • i5 Vd = 1/3 • Dmax (%) Table 15. 76 for Lake Vanern. 0 This nomenclature has the advantage, before for example the one proposed by Hedenstierna (1948), that it is based on a specified area division. This simplifies statistical calculations. It also agrees, at least as well as any other classification system, with the prevalent linguistic usage.

If this is required, then the form roughness (Rf ) is a preferable measure. The lake bottom roughness may also be determined directly from the echograms accordingly (Galvenius, 1975): (27) I where R lx' ly = the lake bottom roughness; = the total length of the actual bottom profile along the x-direction and y-direction, respectively (in km); s x' s y = the total straight-line length of the echosounded tracks in the x- and y-directions (in km). I No quantitative comparison between the R-value and the R -value has yet been published.

The aim is to determine the area error, , or rather, the I -value, as well as the optimal information (I), and the optimal number of contour lines (n) that may be used in the bathymetric map. We will use empirical data from Lake Vanern and evaluate the hydrographic survey which was conducted during 1972 and 1973. Lake Vanern is the largest lake in Sweden and the fourth largest in Europe. Further information about this survey can be obtained from Hakanson (1978c). The average distance between echo sounded tracks was decided to be 500 m.

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A Manual of Lake Morphometry by Dr. Lars Håkanson (auth.)


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