New PDF release: Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker

▓ Book's spouse Website
http://www.abstractionthebook.com

▓ Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic belief, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs an important function in lots of disciplines, significantly computing device Programming, common and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, man made Intelligence and laptop studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first offers the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in a variety of disciplines by means of evaluating either commonalities and modifications. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply appropriate via the creation of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diverse domain names and purposes. it's the influence of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated structures and computer studying which creates the center of the e-book. A normal framework, in accordance with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reports: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares a variety of methods to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, resembling cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout potent systems

▒ Book's Preface
When we began penning this e-book we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it will take us virtually 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, throughout the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it sincerely emerged that vital effects were accomplished, yet that much
more vital ones are nonetheless out of succeed in. Then, the spirit of the booklet replaced, by
itself, from the meant review of the previous to a stimulus for the long run. We
would feel free if the reader, rather than being content material with the tips we propose,
would take them as a motivation and start line to move past them.
We current a wide collection of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many proper contributions to the sphere were inevitably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they'd fill. We express regret for the missing
citations.
In this publication we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this can be not
the middle of the booklet. It has a constrained scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it indicates that numerous past proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with inside of a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational atmosphere for acting abstraction via using a suite of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in reality, there's nonetheless a gap
between common abstraction theories, normally based logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban ways that seriously depend on particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be whatever in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a huge spectrum of purposes and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in numerous contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the elemental rules on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those rules are definitely controversial; some
reader may well imagine that our view of abstraction is precisely what he/she has always
looked for, while another may well imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what concerns is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The ebook isn't meant to be a textbook: it's distinct to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction innovations, with no quandary of fields. desktop scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the e-book. a few elements are extra formalized, they usually may
look advanced initially sight. in spite of the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable by way of intuition.

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Extra resources for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems

Example text

This observation appears to be unfair, because Husserl clearly states that the abstraction process does not actually change the objects, but simply “diverts the attention from their peculiarities”. On the other hand, Frege himself appeared to change his position ten years later, by asserting that the process of abstraction can indeed change the objects, or even create new ones. ” A good illustrative example of this abstraction process is geometry, which started from the observation and measurement of physical spaces and forms, moving then to the abstract axioms of the Euclidean geometry, and, later on, to non-Euclidean geometries, farther and farther removed from the perceived physical world.

The basis for Piaget’s notion of abstraction is the ability to find structures, patterns or regularities in the world. An interesting point is made by Halford, Wilson, and Phillips [231], who draw attention to the role relational knowledge plays in the process of abstraction and in analogy. In their view, the ability of dealing with relations is the core of abstract thinking, and this ability increases with the phylogenetic level, and also with age in childhood. The reason is that the cognitive load imposed by processing relational knowledge depends on the complexity of the relations themselves; actually, the number of arguments of a relation makes a good metric for conceptual complexity.

4 K. Malevich’s Portrait of Ivan Klioune (1911). The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg [A color version of this figure is reported in Fig. H3 of Appendix H] In Fig. 5 an even more abstract painting, by the contemporary French painter Pierre Soulages, is reported. He says: “J’aime l’autorit e´ du noir. C’est une couleur qui ne transige pas. Une couleur violente mais qui incite pourtant a` l’int eriorisation. ´ A la fois couleur et non-couleur. Quand la lumiere ` s’y refl ete, ` il la transforme, la transmute.

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Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker


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