By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi
Persia is domestic to 1 of the few civilizations on the earth that has had a continuing culture of philosophical idea for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology built within the heart a long time, lots of its faculties interacted with current Persian philosophical currents and developed right into a specific philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been a number of Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented the following. vital decisions from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are integrated within the quantity, a lot of that have by no means earlier than been on hand in translation within the West in the past.
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Additional info for An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond
36 Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages rest becomes latent in them; and if rest becomes manifest, then motion becomes latent in them. ’ Abū Isḥāq (al-Naẓẓām) used to say: ‘We have found that: a) wood [changes] upon disintegrating and dissolving into elements from which it was composed and the sums from which it was made up; namely, fire, smoke, water and ashes; b) that fire emits heat and light, water produces a sound, smoke has a taste, a colour and a smell and c) that ashes have a taste, a colour and a certain dryness, and the flowing water has a portion of its fellow-elements.
2, p. 47. Ibid. Part. 2, p. 58. This section is from Madhāhib al-Islāmiyyīn, pp. 235–238. ’ Ibrāhīm al-Naẓẓām 35 fire should [penetrate] the flint without burning it. ’ ‘Many theoreticians have argued that fire is latent in the flint; they even held that it is latent in the wood. These include al-Iskāfī and others. Zurqān also reported that Abū Bakr al-ʿAṣamm held that there is nothing which is latent in something else, as they claim. ’ ‘Many atheists held that colours, tastes and smells are latent in earth, water and fire, and then they appear in the ripe date and other fruits by transmission and the contact of shapes with one another.
This is an adequate exposition of the theory of latency, as it circulated in Islam up to the fourth century ah If we search in the rest of the sources for al-Naẓẓām’s theory of latency and interpenetration, we will find first what Ibn al-Rāwandī states. He writes: ‘(al-Naẓẓām) used to say that God created all men, beasts and animals, brutes and plants at the same time; and that the creation of Adam did not antedate the creation of his children; or the creation of mothers that of their offspring.
An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi